Book published: Negotiating Mughal Law

Nandini Chatterjee

Amid the Covid-19 crisis, when the world is in lockdown and worrying news is streaming in, there was a little glimmer of joy as my book finally emerged into the world. In various forms, I have worked on materials that eventually made their way into the book for over eight years. But it was the ERC grant that eventually gave me the time and resources to complete this labour of love.

Cambridge University Press, 2020
Open Access, read and download for free here.

 

What a journey it has been. It began with learning Persian in Oxford with Mohammadjavad Ardalan, then training in Persian palaeography in JNU under the care of Prof. Chander Shekhar. My sources were dry, brief formulaic legal documents from the Mughal period (mainly seventeenth and eighteenth centuries), written mainly in Persian, some of which I found in the National Archives in Delhi, some later sent to me by the Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah museum of Kuwait, and some by the actual descendants of my protagonists. From there on, it became an obsession, such that I, and members of my family, began mouthing the formulaic phrases of Indo-Persian legal documents, ‘The reason for saying all this is this, that I, Nandini, daughter of …, wife of …, resident of …, in full possession of my senses and with full free will, do hereby…’

The legal documents were tantalising fragments. They offered glimpses of people, their relationships, their anxieties and disputes, their aspirations and frustrations. What helped me piece that together into one long story was my method of dealing with a single family, a landed lineage headquartered in the district of Dhar, in central India, for over 400 years.

I became so familiar with the members of the family and the protagonists of this book – Purshottam Das, Hamir Chand, Muhammad Mustafa, Muhammad Asad, Puran -that I began to think of them as my friends and companions, each with their own eccentricities, side-stories, success and troubles. And although I had never been to Dhar, that old city, near Ujjain, became the most recognisable Indian city to my little son, just because he had heard so much about it over the years.  And then I went to Dhar in 2016, and actually found the descendants of my protagonists, most importantly, my amazing friend, Amit Choudhary. To find out how that unfolded, you have to read the book!

Which, by the way, you can do, for free, here. It’s all open access, so please do download, read and distribute to friends, family and students!

Lawforms Workshop 2019 Exeter

Lawforms Workshop 2019: Manuals, Stylebooks, and Formularies for Persianate Legal Documents

8-10 July 2019, Hotel Du Vin and Bistro, Magdalen Street, Exeter EX2 4HY

We are preparing for our upcoming workshop; here is the draft programme. This is a project team-centred event, but we have space for a few more people; if  you can read Persian, and would like to read manuals for fun, do get in touch! N.Chatterjee@exeter.ac.uk 

Working Programme; will continue to be updated

 

Day 1 – Monday, 8 July 2019

9:00-10:30 am – Epistolary models and the concept of inshā’

Introductory discussion of aims of workshop

Further discussion of readings on inshā’and related manuals and formularies genres (Paul, Mitchell, Flatt, Horstmann, Deshpande)

10:30-11:00 am– Tea and coffee break

11:00 am-12:30 pm– Modelling Persianate legal documents I

Discussion of selections from inshā’ from Iran or Central Asia (TBD)

12:30-2:00 pm– Lunch at conference venue

2:00-3:30 pm –Modelling Persianate legal documents II

Discussion of selections from Manāẓir al-Inshā’, ed. Ma’dankan, pp. 185-7, 192-3, 219

3:30-4:00 pm– Tea and coffee break

4:00-5:30 pm– Modelling Persianate legal documents III

Discussion of selections from Inshā’-yi Harkaran, ed. Balfour, pp. 162-75

6:30-8:30 pm– Conference-sponsored dinner at local restaurant

 

Day 2 – Tuesday, 9 July 2019

 9:00-10:30 am– Numeracy and accounting

Discussion of selections from Khulāṣat al-Siyāq

10:30-11:00 am– Tea and coffee break

11:00 am-12:30 pm– Hybrid manuals I

Discussion of selections from Mughal dastūr al-ʿamal (BL or Richards?)

12:30-2:00 pm– Lunch at conference venue

2:00-3:30 pm– Hybrid manuals II

Discussion of selections from Alwar colonial dastūr al-ʿamal from APRI

3:30-4:00 pm– Tea and coffee break

4:00-5:30 pm– Indic-language manuals

Presentation on Marathi manuals by Dominic Vendell, Lawforms Project

Presentation on Rajasthani/Hindi manuals by Elizabeth Thelen, Lawforms Project

6:30-8:30 pm– Conference-sponsored dinner at local restaurant

 

Day 3 – Wednesday, 10 July 2019

10:30 am-12:30 pm– Grammars and dictionaries

Discussion of RAS Tod 173 (Persian facetious dictionary) and Thanjavur Marathi grammar led by Lawforms team

12:30-2:00 pm– Lunch at conference venue

2:00-3:30 pm– Group discussion of workshop insights and future goals

3:30-4:00 pm– Tea and coffee break

4:00-5:30 pm– Further project-related conversation and planning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A judicial enquiry – glimpses from Waqai‘ Ajmer

Guest post by Prof. Chander Shekhar

Director, Lal Bahadur Shastri Center for Indian Culture (ICCR),Embassy of India, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

During my work at the Telengana Government Oriental Manuscripts library (old Asafia library)in Hyderabad, I came across this interesting report of a legal dispute within the waqai‘ Ajmer (official newsletters from the administrative division of Ajmer), from emperor Aurangzeb’s period of rule. The specific report is dated the month of Jamādi al-ākhir, twenty-first sāl-i julūs (1676 CE). 

In this, it is reported that a parvāna(sub-imperial order) was issued under the the seal  of siyādat panāh Iftekhar Khan, seeking a full inquiry by the Aqzī al-Quzzāt (اقضی القضاه; unusual term, possibly seniormost judge) in the matter of an appeal by a resident of the city of Ajmer called Ganga Ram. Ganga Ram complained  that his son-in law Bhagwan, a bronze vessel worker, had been whipped badly and killed by a certain Muhammad Alam son of Muhammad Arif Amin in Dindwana qasba (town) for not obeying his undue orders to make bronze vessels. Bhagwan’s wife, the daughter of Ganga Ram, who wanted to burn herself with her murdered husband was stopped from burning and kept forcibly in Muhammad Alam’s house. According to the above, office of siyādat panāh Iftekhar Khan has sought the immediate presence of Muhammad Alam along with the daughter of the plaintiff. Decision will be taken after the matter becomes clear after due inquiry.